Observations on the structure, organization and cohesion of Sūrat al-Infiṭār
Sūrat al-Infiṭār (The Cleaving) is a relatively short sūrah which derives its name from the occurrence of the word infaṭarat (break apart) in the first āyah. It is said to be of the earliest suwar revealed in Mecca.
When the contents of the sūrah are observed in totality, it appears that the subject matter forms a small ring structure.1
[A]/[A’] - Together, these two sections summarize the beginning and end of Judgment Day. The sūrah’s introduction describes the cataclysmic scenes that usher in the Day of Judgement as the graves are overturned and their inhabitants recall what they did while alive to prepare for this Day. In other words, every soul already has an idea of where it is headed.
The sūrah ends by describing what happens at the conclusion of the Day of Recompense as souls are placed into their final destinations based on their beliefs and actions in this life. No soul can help another soul. On that day, the One causing the events to unfold in the beginning and end of the sūrah is solely Allah ﷻ. He will pass the final verdict, and the human who came out of the grave knowing his destination, will enter it without contestation.
[B] - Interestingly, Section [B] appears to form its own mini-ring structure with the graciousness and nobility (al-Kareem) of Allah ﷻ complimenting the mention of the noble (kirāman) angelic scribes who record our deeds. The angels serve as an official ledger that mankind came out of his grave “knowing what he put forth and kept back” in Section [A].
At the center of both ring structures mentioned thus far is the insubordinate attitude of humans as they deny the Accounting.
Taking the above into consideration, one may summarize the full ring structure as so:
And Allah ﷻ knows best.
Ali Khan, Nouman. “02. Al-Infitar (Ayat 6-19) - A Concise Commentary” Bayyinah TV, https://bayyinahtv.com/topics/1/categories/9/series/177/videos/1966