Observations on the structure, organization and cohesion of Sūrat al-Bayyinah
Sūrat al-Bayyinah (The Clear Proof), while short in length, has some of the most exhaustive commentary written, especially pertaining to the opening āyāt. The sūrah is named after the mention of “al-Bayyinah (the clear proof),” which Allah ﷻ sent down to guide mankind. The sūrah is contested as to where it was revealed, with scholars arguing heavily for either Mecca or Medina.
When observed in whole, the sūrah appears to form a ring structure.1
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[A]/[A’] - The sūrah begins by describing the “bayyinah” which came to separate people into believers and disbelievers. The ending declares the outcomes for people on either side of that division. Those who disbelieved in the face of clear evidence are labeled as the “worst of creatures (sharrul bariyyah),” while those who chose to believe and act on that belief are labeled as “the best of creatures (khayrul bariyyah).”
[B] - The center of the sūrah focuses on the integrals of al-Bayyinah. What does it mean to follow the clear evidence and dīn (religion) of Allah ﷻ? The message sent is one consistent with the message of all previous messengers; messengers the disbelievers would have been familiar with before the coming of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
Broken down further, the three sections appear to form their own individual structures. Section [A] is a ring structure.
The center appears to form a mirror structure.
And Section [A’] forms what seems to be another mirror structure.
And Allah ﷻ knows best.
The macro ring structure is thanks to the work of:
Ali Khan, Nouman. “01. Al-Bayyinah (Ayah 1-8) - A Concise Commentary” Bayyinah TV, https://bayyinahtv.com/topics/1/categories/9/series/193/videos/1986
The smaller rings within, noted below, are from personal observations.