Sūrah Al-Jumuʿah, al-Munāfiqūn and at-Taghābun (Final Part)
Final part of observations of the parallels between Sūrah al-Jumuʿah, Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn and Sūrah at-Taghābun
Last week we began observing the structural relationship that Surah at-Taghābun appears to demonstrate with the two suwar before it, Sūrah al-Jumuʿah (The Congregation) and Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn (The Hypocrites). This week we will conclude our observations of the connections between these suwar.
Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn begins by detailing the false oaths and flip-flopping of the hypocrites. Allah ﷻ says that “they believed, and then they disbelieved (kafarū); so their hearts were sealed over, and they do not understand.” Another characteristic of theirs is that “if they speak, you listen to their speech.”
At the midpoint of Sūrah at-Taghābun, Allah ﷻ speaks of “the ones who disbelieved (kafarū) and denied Our signs.” In other words, they do not listen to a thing the Messenger ﷺ conveys. As mentioned in Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn, the Messenger ﷺ is too courteous to the hypocrites. He gives them attention though they pay him no heed. Those who disbelieved, Allah ﷻ informs us in Sūrah at-Taghābun, are bound for eternity in the Hellfire.
The next characteristic of the hypocrites is that “they think that every shout is against them.” They assume that every trial they face is a result of people conspiring against them.
In contrast, the believers, in Sūrah at-Taghābun, understand that “no disaster strikes except by permission of Allah.” This revelation is immediately followed by an enjoinment to “obey Allah and the Messenger,” a command that the hypocrites have obviously failed, leading to their flawed mentality.
Allah ﷻ concludes his description of the hypocrites saying, “they are the enemy (ʿaduww), so beware of them (faḥdhar-hum). May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?” In the same vein, Allah ﷻ warns the believers in Sūrah at-Taghābun that “among your spouses and your children are enemies (ʿaduwwā) to you, so beware of them (faḥdharū-hum).”
In Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn, the hypocrites are encouraged to come to faith so that the Messenger ﷺ may seek their forgiveness, but they reject the offer. As a result, Allah ﷻ says, “It is all the same for them whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; never will Allah forgive them.”
On the same note, the believers in Sūrah at-Taghābun are told to look past the faults of their spouses and children and “pardon and overlook and forgive - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.”
The hypocrites are quoted as telling their followers to “not spend (lā tunfiqū)” on the Messenger ﷺ and his followers, hoping to financially ruin the believers in the process. In light of their poor decisions with their wealth, Allah ﷻ reminds the believers to not allow “your wealth (amwālu-kum) and your children (awlādu-kum) divert you from the remembrance of Allah.”
In the same way, Allah ﷻ reminds the believers in Sūrah at-Taghābun that “your wealth (amwālu-kum) and your children (awlādu-kum) are but a trial.” Contrary to popular belief, having wealth is not a sign of Allah’s pleasure, but is actually a test from Him on how we will spend it.
In Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn, the believers are warned to “spend (anfiqū) [in the way of Allah] from what We have provided you before death approaches one of you and he says, "My Lord, if only You would delay me for a brief term so I would give charity and be of the righteous."
Allah ﷻ repeats this towards the end of Sūrah at-Taghābun when He tells us to “fear Allah as much as you are able and listen and obey and spend (anfaqū); it is better for your selves.”
Finally, both suwar end describing Allah ﷻ. Sūrah al-Munāfiqūn concludes, “And Allah is Aware of what you do,” while Sūrah at-Taghābun describes Allah as the, “[most] Appreciative and Forbearing, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”
Summarizing the work of our previous posts, we start to see a relationship spanning four different suwar, all in sequential order. This adds to the argument that the suwar of the Quran were organized by Allah ﷻ, as opposed to being put together based on the opinions of the companions of the Messenger ﷺ after his death.
Here is an overview of how these four suwar appear to be organized when properly juxtaposed.
And Allah knows best - والله أعلم
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Personal notes and research